The role of bystanders, first responders, and emergency medical service providers in timely defibrillation and related outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

From Resuscitation:


Defibrillation by bystanders and first responders has been associated with increased survival, but limited data are available from non-metropolitan areas. We examined time from 911-call to defibrillation (according to who defibrillated patients) and survival in North Carolina.


Through the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival, we identified 1732 defibrillated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests from counties with complete case capture (population 2.7 million) from 2010 to 2013.


Most patients (60.9%) were defibrillated in >10 min. A minority (8.0%) was defibrillated <5 min; most of these patients were defibrillated by first responders (51.8%) and bystanders (33.1%), independent of location of arrest (residential or public). Bystanders initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in 49.0% of cases and defibrillated 13.4% of those. Survival decreased with increasing time to defibrillation (<2 min: 59.1%; 2 to <5 min: 38.5%; 5–10 min: 33.1%; >10 min: 13.2%). Odds of survival with favorable neurologic outcome adjusted for age, sex, and bystander CPR improved with faster defibrillation (<2 min: OR 7.73 [95% CI 3.19–18.73]; 2 to <5 min: 3.78 [2.45–5.84]; 5–10 min: 3.16 [2.42–4.12]; >10 min: reference).


Bystanders and first responders were mainly responsible for defibrillation within 5 min, independent of location of arrest. Bystanders initiated CPR in half of the cardiac arrest cases but only defibrillated a minority of those. Timely defibrillation and defibrillation by bystanders and/or first responders were strongly associated with increased survival. Strategic efforts to increase bystander and first-responder defibrillation are warranted to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Infant sleep safety still misunderstood by many caregivers

From Reuters:

Even though most caregivers agree on the importance of safe infant sleep practices, many of them may not know what to do – or not do – to prevent sleep-related deaths from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), a U.S. study suggests.

Researchers questioned caregivers of newborns at Staten Island University Hospital in New York City about sleep safety and found 53 percent of them disagreed with use of pacifiers – which are in fact linked to a lower risk of SIDS – and 62 percent believed in swaddling infants – which is tied to an increased SIDS risk.