What Is the Optimal Chest Compression Depth During Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation of Adult Patients?

From Circulation:

Background—The 2010 American Heart Association guidelines suggested an increase in cardiopulmonary resuscitation compression depth with a target >50 mm and no upper limit. This target is based on limited evidence, and we sought to determine the optimal compression depth range.

Methods and Results—We studied emergency medical services–treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Prehospital Resuscitation Impedance Valve and Early Versus Delayed Analysis clinical trial and the Epistry-Cardiac Arrest database. We calculated adjusted odds ratios for survival to hospital discharge, 1-day survival, and any return of circulation. We included 9136 adult patients from 9 US and Canadian cities with a mean age of 67.5 years, mean compression depth of 41.9 mm, and a return of circulation of 31.3%, 1-day survival of 22.8%, and survival to hospital discharge of 7.3%. For survival to discharge, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.04 (95% CI, 1.00–1.08) for each 5-mm increment in compression depth, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.20–1.76) for cases within 2005 depth range (>38 mm), and 1.05 (95% CI, 1.03–1.08) for percentage of minutes in depth range (10% change). Covariate-adjusted spline curves revealed that the maximum survival is at a depth of 45.6 mm (15-mm interval with highest survival between 40.3 and 55.3 mm) with no differences between men and women.

Conclusions—This large study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients demonstrated that increased cardiopulmonary resuscitation compression depth is strongly associated with better survival. Our adjusted analyses, however, found that maximum survival was in the depth interval of 40.3 to 55.3 mm (peak, 45.6 mm), suggesting that the 2010 American Heart Association cardiopulmonary resuscitation guideline target may be too high.

Debriefing in the Emergency Department After Clinical Events: A Practical Guide

From the Annals of Emergency Medicine:

One vital aspect of emergency medicine management is communication after episodes of care to improve future performance through group reflection on the shared experience. This reflective activity in teams is known as debriefing, and despite supportive evidence highlighting its benefits, many practitioners experience barriers to implementing debriefing in the clinical setting. The aim of this article is to review the current evidence supporting postevent debriefing and discuss practical approaches to implementing debriefing in the emergency department. We will address the who, what, when, where, why, and how of debriefing and provide a practical guide for the clinician to facilitate debriefing in the clinical environment.

AVOID Oxygen? Evidence of Harm in MI

From Medscape:

Results of a new trial suggest supplemental oxygen therapy in patients with ST-elevation MI (STEMI) may actually be harmful for patients who are not hypoxic[1].

The Air Versus Oxygen in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (AVOID) trial compared supplemental oxygen vs no oxygen unless O2 fell below 94%.

“The AVOID study found that in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction who were not hypoxic, there was this suggestion that, potentially, oxygen is increasing myocardial injury, recurrent myocardial infarction, and major cardiac arrhythmia and may be associated with greater infarct size at 6 months,” lead author Dr Dion Stub (St Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC, and the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia) concluded.