Urban and rural differences in older drivers’ failure to stop at stop signs

From Accident Analysis and Prevention:

Our purpose was to determine visual and cognitive predictors for older drivers’ failure to stop at stop signs. 1425 drivers aged between ages 67 and 87 residing in Salisbury Maryland were enrolled in a longitudinal study of driving. At baseline, the participants were administered a battery of vision and cognition tests, and demographic and health questionnaires. Five days of driving data were collected with a Driving Monitoring System (DMS), which obtained data on stop signs encountered and failure to stop at stop signs. Driving data were also collected 1 year later (round two). The outcome, number of times a participant failed to stop at a stop sign at round two, was modeled using vision and cognitive variables as predictors. A negative binomial regression model was used to model the failure rate. Of the 1241 who returned for round two, 1167 drivers had adequate driving data for analyses and 52 did not encounter a stop sign. In the remaining 1115, 15.8% failed at least once to stop at stop signs, and 7.1% failed to stop more than once. Rural drivers had 1.7 times the likelihood of not stopping compared to urban drivers. Amongst the urban participants, the number of points missing in the bilateral visual field was significantly associated with a lower failure rate. In this cohort, older drivers residing in rural areas were less likely to stop at stop-sign intersections than those in urban areas. It is possible that rural drivers frequent areas with less traffic and better visibility, and may be more likely to take the calculated risk of not stopping. In this cohort failure to stop at stop signs was not explained by poor vision or cognition. Conversely in urban areas, those who have visual field loss appear to be more cautious at stop signs.

Intraosseous vascular access in adults using the EZ-IO in an emergency department

From International Journal of Emergency Medicine:

Background: Intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative to conventional intravenous access.

Aims: We evaluate the use of the EZ-IO™ as an alternative vascular access for patients in the emergency department.
Methods: A non-randomized, prospective, observational study was performed in adults using the EZ-IO™ powered drill device.
Results: Twenty-four patients were recruited. There were 35 intraosseous insertions, including 24 tibial and 11 humeral insertions. All EZ-IO™ insertions were achieved within 20 s and were successful at the first attempt except for one. Of the intraosseous insertions, 88.6% were reported to be easier than intravenous cannulation. We found flow rates to be significantly faster using a pressure bag. The seniority of operators did not affect the success of insertion. Complications included a glove being caught in the drill device and extravasation of fluid although they were easily preventable.
Conclusion: The use of the EZ-IO™ provides a fast, easy and reliable alternative mode of venous access, especially in the resuscitation of patients with no venous vascular access in the emergency department. Flow rates may be improved by the use of pressure bags.

Patient shot dead by police at Olympia hospital

From the KOMONews:

OLYMPIA, Wash. – An unruly patient at an Olympia hospital was shot dead by a police officer early Saturday when the patient pulled out a gun in an emergency treatment room, officers said.

The bizarre incident began at about 2:15 a.m. Saturday when the security staff at Providence St. Peter Hospital called police to ask for help in dealing with an unruly, 220-pound patient who was possibly armed.

Officers arrived at the hospital and were directed to a 43-year-old Elma man in the emergency room who had been brought into the hospital by his mother with a head injury. The mother told hospital personnel he might be armed.

The officers searched the man, identified as Joseph Leonard Burkett, and found two loaded handguns. The guns were confiscated, and officers later discovered they had been stolen from a home in McCleary.

Burkett remained in the emergency room with police present while treatment for his head injury continued.

About two hours later, Burkett was scheduled for a medical test, but when hospital staff began to get him ready for the test, he again became agitated and unruly, police said.

The officer who was on guard entered the treatment room to assist the emergency room staff. When he did, Burkett pulled out yet another gun.

The officer and Burkett wrestled for the weapon. During the struggle, the officer fired one shot at the patient.

Grand Jury Charges KY EMT with Murder

From JEMS:

LOUISVILLE, Ky. – A grand jury in Lousiville has indicted an ambulance driver on a murder charge for an ambulance crash in which a patient died.

Tammy Renee Brewer was also charged with assault, driving under the influence, wanton criminal endangerment and criminal mischief.

The Courier-Joural reported that Brewer told investigators she swerved to miss a pedestrian in April 2008 when the ambulance crashed and 54-year-old Vickie Whobrey was killed. Whobrey was being taken to Sts. Mary & Elizabeth Hospital because of prolonged nosebleed. A coroner’s report said she died from injuries received in the crash.